|Alkalized cocoa powder: Dutch-process
powders - have been treated with alkali (from very light reddish-brown to dark
reddish-brown color; mild cocoa flavor to strong cocoa flavor).
Chocolate liquor:the mass produced by
grinding cocoa nibs.
Cocoa: the residue of fibrous and other
solid materials containing the flavoring and coloring components of chocolate liquor after
some or most of the fat has been removed with a hydraulic press.
Cocoa beans: the source of all chocolate and
cocoa. Cocoa beans are found in the pods of the cacao tree. Theobroma cacao, an evergreen
typically grown within 20° of the equator.
Cocoa butter: the natural, cream-colored
vegetable fat extracted from cocoa beans during the process of making chocolate and cocoa
powder. It is obtained by pressing chocolate liquor. Adds smoothness and flavor.
Cocoa powder: once cocoa beans are
fermented, dried, roasted and cracked, the nibs (center of the cocoa bean) are ground to
extract about half the cocoa butter, leaving a dark brown paste called chocolate liquor.
After drying again, the hardened mass (press cake) is ground into the powder known as
unsweetened cocoa, available in different fat levels. May be natural or dutch processed.
Compound (confectioners) coating: a coating
material similar to chocolate, but formulated with domestic or imported fats rather than
Devil's food: a chocolate-flavored product
that derives most of its flavor from cocoa butter rather than chocolate.
Dutch processed: an alkaline treatment of
the nib prior to grinding, or the liquor prior to pressing. This process darkens the
resultant chocolate liquor or cocoa and modifies the chocolate flavor, helping to
neutralize cocoa's natural acidity.
Dutching: a treatment of the chocolate
product with alkali
Natural process: non-alkalized chocolate
liquor or cocoa processed without an alkaline treatment.
Non-alkalized cocoa powders: natural process
powders - manufactured without the use of alkali; yellowish-brown color; fruity, acidy
Press cake: product that remains after most
of the cocoa butter has been pressed from the chocolate-liquor. Press cake is pulverized
to make cocoa powder.