Glossary of Cocoa related terms:

Alkalized cocoa powder: Dutch-process powders - have been treated with alkali (from very light reddish-brown to dark reddish-brown color; mild cocoa flavor to strong cocoa flavor).
Chocolate liquor:the mass produced by grinding cocoa nibs.
Cocoa: the residue of fibrous and other solid materials containing the flavoring and coloring components of chocolate liquor after some or most of the fat has been removed with a hydraulic press.
Cocoa beans: the source of all chocolate and cocoa. Cocoa beans are found in the pods of the cacao tree. Theobroma cacao, an evergreen typically grown within 20 of the equator.
Cocoa butter: the natural, cream-colored vegetable fat extracted from cocoa beans during the process of making chocolate and cocoa powder. It is obtained by pressing chocolate liquor. Adds smoothness and flavor.
Cocoa powder: once cocoa beans are fermented, dried, roasted and cracked, the nibs (center of the cocoa bean) are ground to extract about half the cocoa butter, leaving a dark brown paste called chocolate liquor. After drying again, the hardened mass (press cake) is ground into the powder known as unsweetened cocoa, available in different fat levels. May be natural or dutch processed.
Compound (confectioners) coating: a coating material similar to chocolate, but formulated with domestic or imported fats rather than cocoa butter.
Devil's food: a chocolate-flavored product that derives most of its flavor from cocoa butter rather than chocolate.
Dutch processed: an alkaline treatment of the nib prior to grinding, or the liquor prior to pressing. This process darkens the resultant chocolate liquor or cocoa and modifies the chocolate flavor, helping to neutralize cocoa's natural acidity.
Dutching: a treatment of the chocolate product with alkali
Natural process: non-alkalized chocolate liquor or cocoa processed without an alkaline treatment.
Non-alkalized cocoa powders: natural process powders - manufactured without the use of alkali; yellowish-brown color; fruity, acidy flavor.
Press cake: product that remains after most of the cocoa butter has been pressed from the chocolate-liquor. Press cake is pulverized to make cocoa powder.

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